Taynton Inclosure Award (1822)

1822 - Manuscript Vellum Land Grant

"Taynton Inclosure Award"

Date: 1822

Taynton in Oxfordshire, 16 May 1822. Manuscript Enclosure Award on vellum, being a type of land grant approved by the Parliament of England, which doled out parcels of land previously termed "common" and collectively controlled and farmed by everyday citizens, to subsequently be privately owned by wealthy British peers and the like, complete with the original accompanying survey map, hand-drawn on vellum, delineating the new acquisitions of British politician, former MP of Carmarthenshire in Wales, George Talbot Rice, 3rd Baron Dynevor, among others. Medium Folio. 25 pages including the commissioner's manuscript oath, written to rectos only, each page of the document bordered in red ink, docketed by a parliamentary court clerk, and labelling it 'Roll 415.' Accompanied the original large manuscript folding map of the Parish of Taynton, tipped in at the front of the volume, with roadways and rivers hand coloured, measuring approximately 53 x 71 cm. Plan was drawn by Edward Webb of Stow on the Wold, land surveyor, and features a scale bar and decorative compass rose. Full calf binding consisting of the original boards tooled, titled in gilt to front, with two working brass clasps, secured with a recent professionally crafted leather spine tastefully tooled in gilt, with gilt with morocco label. Volume measuring approximately 45 x 33 x 2 cm. A fascinating and detailed document. Statistically, Oxfordshire was one of the regions most affected by the enclosure movement. Between 1758 and 1882, 190 parliamentary enclosure acts were passed for the county, affecting 51% of its acreage, while 1/3 of parishes changed through no-parliamentary enclosure. The "enclosure" movement was the process by which the common fields, vast shared pastures and scattered tracts of arable land of rural medieval England, were consolidated and distributed to the wealthy and elite - resulting in the demise of the small farmer and the increase of national agricultural trade. The process began in the 12th century. From the mid-16th century enclosures were commonly enrolled by decree of one of the equity courts, especially Chancery and Exchequer. From 1750 the practice became widespread, and from 1773 was by the "Inclosure Acts" (or "Enclosure Acts" in modern spelling). Private Acts of Parliament were often instigated by a land claim, enacted only after failure to settle land disputes amicably between the landowner and tenants. These earlier agreements can be found amongst the equity Court of Chancery records. The actual legal process was called Inclosure. These Acts of Parliament listed the landowner who had brought the case to parliament, as well as the name of the appointed enclosure commissioner. The Inclosure Act 1773, passed during the reign of George III, required the procedure to start with a petition delivered to Parliament signed by the landowner, tithe holders and a majority of people affected. The petition then went through the stages of a bill with a committee meeting to hear any objections. The petition would then go through to Royal Assent after passing through both Houses of Parliament. Commissioners would then visit the area and distribute the land accordingly. In 1801, the Inclosure (Consolidation) Act was passed to tidy up the previous act. The series of Acts of Parliament continued to enclosed open fields and common land in England and Wales, creating legal property rights and private ownership over land that was previously considered common. These normally specified where awards were to be deposited or enrolled, either by one of the courts of record or with the local clerk of the peace. The legal documents which recorded the new ownership and delineated the distribution of land - as seen here - were called "Inclosure Awards." A detailed survey was conducted by a commissioner, who charted the land and its boundaries sometimes including the names of the pre-enclosure fields, footpaths, roads and other features and further provided a textual description, forming a lengthy and detailed document. Following the survey, the inclosure award listed the wealthy landowners, and, if they were to be so fortunate, any farmers and cottagers who were allotted land in lieu of their former common rights. The awards did not, however, list landless people, so many parishioners are not recorded. Even if a person was known to have held land, it is not certain that his property will appear on an enclosure map as much land was enclosed by private agreement with no record made of the event. The year of enclosure for Taynton, Oxfordshire, was 1821. The Oxfordshire History Centre holds enclosure documents such as this one, belonging to the National Archives. In 1845, some twenty-three years after the present Inclosure Award was enrolled in Parliament, the system was changed. A General Inclosure Act (8 & 9 Vict. c.118) allowed for the appointment of permanent Inclosure Commissioners who were authorized to issue Enclosure Awards without submitting them to Parliament for approval. Inclosure was a key element of Great Britain's Agricultural Revolution, and effectively broke up the smallholding system of farming the land, and many small farmers became landless labourers. There was, however, a national benefit, in that agricultural productivity increased, and a national market was established. With no internal tariffs, customs barriers and feudal tolls, Britain became "the largest coherent market in Europe." In the case of Taynton Parish, John Davis, the Commissioner of Bloxham, County of Oxford, executed the allotments and enrolled the enclosure award. He was sworn in on 15 May 1821 and completed the work officially on 4 April 1822, final award being "inrolled in His Majesty's Court of King's Bench at Westminster" on 16 May 1822. The primary recipient of the tracts of land in the Parish of Taynton was British peer and politician George Rice Talbot, Lord Dynevor (1765-1852). George Talbot Rice, 3rd Baron Dynevor, was the Tory Member of Parliament for Carmarthenshire from 1790 to 1793, succeeding his father who served in that seat from 1754-1789. He inherited the baronetcy and title in 1793 on the death of his mother who had adopted, by royal licence, the name of de Cardonnel. Thus, he assumed the additional surname of de Cardonnell by royal licence in 1793, but chose to resume the name Rice by royal licence in 1817. Through inheritance, he also owned the parishes of Great Barrington and Little Barrington in the County of Gloucester. His remains are kept within the chancel inside of St. Mary's Churchyard in Great Barrington, Gloucestershire, where his widow and children have also placed a monument in his honour. [He was the son of Welsh politician and courtier George Rice (1724-1779) of Newton House, Llandeilo, who was connected maternally to Prime Minister Lord Newcastle, and whose legacy is secured by his role as a ministerial spokesman on America, for he had become a colonial expert when at the Board of Trade and, as the colonial crisis that finally led to the declaration of independence in 1776 deepened, Rice emerged as a hardliner. The Rices were historically a leading Whig family in Carmarthenshire, though their 19th century descendants would sit in parliament as Tories.] Other recipients of land are named, including yeomen (lesser freeholders), a member of the clergy, and one man of gentry status, these receiving a sizeable parcel of land, and additional 'small allotments': John Wheeler, yeoman. [The Plymouth and West Devon Record Office holds for the National Archives, a mortgage document dated 1823 for "Lands at Taynton" which names "John Wheeler of Gloucestershire, yeoman."] Reverend Thomas Lewis, vicar [perhaps a descendant of controversialist Thomas Lewis (1689- ca 1737), English cleric, noted as a vitriolic High Church writer of the Bangorian controversy.] John Large Cozins/Cozens, yeoman. [A tomb for the Cozins family lays at the Church of St John Chest, approximately 24 metres north of the chancel - which coincides with the present map. The tomb is either in the easternmost corner of his small allotment No. 5 or the larger adjacent allotment No. 3 shown here. He is found in the Oxfordshire Archdeacon's Marriage Bond Index, revealing that he was from Taynton and married in 1787 to Mary Woodman of Taynton. John Cozins is also listed in connection with the Broughton rectory at nearby Burford, being elected as a new member of the Royal Agricultural Society of England in the year 1841.] John Lenthall, Esq., possibly a descendant of landowner Sir John Lenthall of Burford who leased some of his land to a papermaker. [Sir John Lenthall, Esq. of Burford, owned in 1706 the Manor of Upton Signet. In 1709 he acquired land in Burford, among other places, and leased it to papermaker Peter Rich of Upton, including a moiety of the fulling mills and paper mills. Rich was paid a weekly wage.] One other man benefited from this formal enclosure, though he was granted only one tract of land (no small allotments), that being William Hall, yeoman, and presumably also the village brewer. [William Hall would have been 22 years old when he received this parcel of land and immense opportunity. The 1851 census of Yarnton lists William Hall as a brewer aged 30. The Oxford Diocesan Marriage Bonds and Affidavits lists the marriage license date of William Hall of Trowbridge, Wiltshire (born in Kneeton, Ntt), to Ann Stange of Yarnton, in 1849. Trowbridge is some sixty miles from Taynton. He is also connected to the Kidlington Manor, situated some twenty miles from Taynton. The Oxford brewer William Hall became a tenant of Kidlington in 1811 and for the next two years he made great improvements to it. His tenancy agreement was made on the condition that he would erect stables and barns, and to make the land arable. Kidlington was subject to 'enclosure' in 1821. This may also be the same William Hall who in 1795 had purchased the Swan's Nest Brewery (later the Swan Brewery) from Sir John Treacher, one time alderman and mayor of Oxford.] [Historically, a yeoman was a personof a class of lesser freeholders, below the gentry, who cultivated their own land, early admitted in England to political rights.] The map is in itself quite fascinating and reveals a lot about Taynton's historic restructuring. Made in manuscript with hand coloured highlights to indicate roadways, rivers, and principle buildings in the village, bold boundaries cleary set out the new divisions of land. Complete with the names of notable land owners, most of the parish was divided into sizeable allotments with the recipient's name penned straight across it. Some separate "Small Allotments" are also delineated; a list below the chart names the recipients, which all happen to be the same persons to whom the larger tracts of land were awarded. Each allotment is annotated with the surveyor's A.R.P. co-ordinates (Antenna Reference Point ARP). Large lettering crossing several allotments illustrate the expansive new holdings of Lord Dynevor, while a manuscript list of "small allotments" adds additional land to his estate. Within his area, are two sections marked "Rectorial Tythes" and one drawing of natural water springs. Any smallholding farmer who had previously worked the land has been omitted, and as such, most likely continued to do so for someone else's profit instead of his own, or was forced to relocate. A small space is generically labeled 'Inclosures' and may represent the meagre area retained for these folks. A small section allotted to Reverend Thomas Lewis reserves his "Manorial Rights" - an ancient tradition of privileges enjoyed by lords of the manor, for example, the right to hunt, shoot or fish. The 14th century parish church of Saint John the Evangelist is drawn and identified. Other buildings in the village are drawn as well, sparse as they are, making for an interesting perspective of the modest population at the time. A very detailed and singular legal document which would forever change the physical landscape of Taynton Parish, as well as the hereditary land rights of several parties, following are some excerpts from the manuscript Inclosure Award recorded in Westminster parliament: "To all whom these presents shall come, John Davis of Bloxham... sends greeting... it is hereby enacted that the said John Davis... is thereby appointed the Commissioner for dividing and inclosing the open and common fields meadows pastures downs and wasteland within the said parish of Taynton..." "... in the said Taynton Act (amongst other things) ) further enacted that it should be lawful for the said Commissioner to set out allot and award any lands tenements or acreditaments whatsoever within the said Parish of Taynton... provided that such exchange should be ascertained specified and declared in the Award... and be made with the consent of the owner or owners proprietors of the lands... whether such owner or owners proprietors or proprietors should be a body or bodies politic corporate or collegiate or a tenant or tenants in fee... lessor... guardians trustees feoffees for charitable or other uses... " "... notice to be given at the time and place of the first attendance for the execution of the said recited acts... notice affixed upon the principal outer door of the said Parish Church of Tayton... a similar notice inserted in the newspaper called Jackson's Oxford Journal..." "Unto and for the said John Large Cozins Yeoman in compensation for his late open fields lands grounds and right of common thereto belonging called Ansell's Freehold. One piece or parcel of lands or grounds situate in the East field containing thirty-two acres three roods... bounded by the Taynton and Milton Road... the private road... a garden... One piece or parcel being two cottages gardens and old inclosures in the village of Taynton... One piece or parcel being the homestead and those called Lamberts... part of the old inclosure called Town Close... part of an inclosure called the paddock..." "Now therefore know ye... that the said Commissioner hath assigned set out and allotted and by these presents doth award unto and for George Talbot Lord Dynevor as Lord of the Manor of Taynton aforesaid in satisfaction and compensation for his late manorial right to the soil of the commons and waste lands directed to be inclosed." "... said Commissioner... thereby authorized and required to set out and allot unto and for the Impropriator of the impropriate Rectory of Taynton aforesaid and unto and for the vicar of the said vicarage... award the said allotments or parcels of land so to be set out as a compensation for such tithes... their respective shares and proportions... in respect of the messuages homesteads gardens orchards or inclosures..." "... doth award and confirm unto and for the Right Honorable George Talbot Rice Lord Dynevor as Impropriator of the Impropriate Rectory of Taynton aforesaid..." "Unto and for the said Right Honorable George Talbot Rice Lord Dynevor in compensation for his open fields lands grounds and rights common thereto belonging (freehold) the fifteen pieces or parcels of lands..." End excerpts. Oxfordshire is prime territory for the study of the 'agricultural revolution', one of the most important phases of English and local history, generally identified as the period from 1750-1850. Agriculture was the mainstay of Oxfordshire life. In 1750 most farming still mixed, dominated by arable and most often organised in open fields, communally regulated and associated with complex common rights of pasture and other uses. The transformation which evolved by 'parliamentary enclosure' resulted in the extinction of the small farmers, and also of customary social structures, but instead created increase in production and wholesale income through new crop types, development of livestock breeds, and simply by ploughing more land. Now there were separate, consolidated farms, held in severalty (individual legal ownership); previous shared common rights were extinguished. The new landscape was composed of smaller, regularly-shaped fields, often enclosed by hedges or walls, and served by designated networks of roads and tracks. The resulting rural society was essentially tripartite, with relatively few landowners, tenant farmers operating under modernised leases, and a mass of rural workers (the majority now waged, day labourers rather than small, family farmers, cottagers or commoners). Statistically, Oxfordshire was one of the counties most affected by enclosure. Between 1758 and 1882, 190 parliamentary enclosure acts were passed for the county, affecting 51% of its acreage, and 1/3 of parishes changed through no-parliamentary enclosure. Spurred by great growth in demand from national trade, and thus higher prices, these market advantages further protected by prolonged wartime conditions from the 1790s to 1815, the agricultural revolution was in full swing. With increasing demand for production came increased opportunity. In the first half of the 19th century, Oxfordshire's population rose faster ever before. The decade of peak growth was 1811-21, during which Oxfordshire's population grew by 16.2%. The relative quiet of the 18th century was effectively replaced by revival, reform, restoration and variety. There was, however, some resistance to enclosure, most famously the Otmoor Riots and the Swing Riots, both in the 1830s. Parishes struggled to cope with the repercussions of agricultural and population changes. In many places there came to be more people than jobs. Widows, orphans, and the chronically sick had to be cared for too. Parishes in Oxfordshire and Berkshire were amongst those who then had to develop elaborate local initiatives to try and respond. Taynton is a village and civil parish about 1 1/2 miles (2.4 km) northwest of Burford in West Oxfordshire. The village is on Coombe Brook, a tributary of the River Windrush. The parish is bounded in the south by the River Windrush [drawn here], in the north partly by Coombe Brook and its tributary Hazelden Brook, in the west by the county boundary with Gloucestershire [Here stating "Great Barrington Parish"] and in the east by field boundaries [Here stating "Fulbrook Parish"]. At the time of the present document, Taynton was barely a village. A school would be built fifty years later in 1877 and a post office would be opened by 1895. The village was, however, long since renowned for its stone quarries, and Taynton limestone was used in many important buildings throughout the Thames Valley. The stone was quarried in in the locality since at least the 14th century, and was used for many of the older colleges of Oxford University, Windsor Castle, the original pre-1666 St Paul's Cathedral, and Blenheim Palace. Kelly's Directory published in 1891 describes Taynton as follows: "Taynton is a parish situated at the western extremity of the county, on the Gloucestershire border, 1¾ miles north-west-by-west from Burford, 9 north-west from Witney and 6½ north-west from Alvescot station on the East Gloucestershire railway, in the Mid division of the county, hundred of Chadlington, petty sessional division of Bampton West, union and county court district of Witney, rural deanery of Witney and archdeaconry and diocese of Oxford. The river Windrush flows through the parish. The ancient church of St. John, an edifice of stone chiefly in the Decorated style, consists of chancel, clerestoried nave, aisles, north porch and a tall and narrow western tower containing 4 bells and a clock, and on the north side a vestry: the chancel, added in 1843, is modern Early English... The charities for distribution in clothing, bread and money amount to £19 yearly: there is also a yearly sum of £5 from the Fifield estate for educational purposes. In this parish are quarries of very excellent stone of the Great Oolite series of which many buildings in Oxford have been constructed. Edward Rhys Wingfield esq. D.L., J.P. of Barrington Park, who is lord of the manor, the Crown and J.J. Bickerton esq. are the principal landowners..." "Hall's Brewery Oxford": [From 'the Oxfordshire Brewer', James Bond and John Rhodes, 1985, Oxfordshire Museum Services]: "In 1795, William Hall purchased the Swan's Nest Brewery (later the Swan Brewery) from Sir John Treacher, one time alderman and mayor of Oxford. The brewery, situated on a narrow strip of land between two channels of the Thames in St Thomas's parish, was in existence as early as 1718. By 1835 William Hall was in partnership with the Tawney family who had been involved in the brewing industry in Oxford since the mid eighteenth century; from 1837 Henry Hall headed the firm... In 1896, the brewery was converted into a company under the name of Hall's Oxford brewery Ltd." The company was taken over by Allsop in 1926, subsequently acquired by Ind Coope (1935), and hence to Allied Breweries.

Wear to boards, reinforced at hinge, otherwise in very good condition, internally clean and bright.


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